Will Every Drop of Water in the Delaware River Turn Salty?

-Protect our WATER in THE DElaware RIVER

dR. hONGBING sUN

Department of Geological, Environmental, and Marine Sciences, Rider University, New Jersey

SALT-SLIDES

THE DELAWARE RIVER WATERSHED

The Delaware River Watershed is located across 5 states: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. It has a catchment area of 13611 square miles and roughly 8.7 million residents according to the 2010 US Census data. There are approximately 15 million people depending on the river for their drinking water.

However, the Delaware River Watershed has a very dense road network due to its population and intense economic activities in the region. Therefore, it is also one of the large watersheds that have the most winter deicing salt applied per square miles in the US.

THE DELAWARE RIVER IS GETTING SALTY

The Salty Facts

Between 1945 and 2018, sodium concentration in the Delaware River at Trenton increased 4 times and chloride concentration increased 6.3 times. There were 14 periods on the record in the Delaware River at Trenton that sodium concentrations was above the 20 mg/l limit recommended by US Environmental Protection Agency and America Heart Association. 13 of these periods were recorded between 2008 and 2018.

Annual average sodium and chloride concentration

trends from 1945 to 2014 at Trenton Station

13 of the 14 periods that sodium concentration was above 20 mg/l were recorded between 2008 and 2018 at Trenton Station

Sodium concentrations increased downstream because of the salt runoff (2005 data)

Chloride concentrations increased downstream as well (2005 data)

 

My Projection

By year 2070 or sooner, average annual sodium concentration in the Delaware River at Trenton will reach the 20 mg/l EPA and AHA recommended limit. By the end of the century, the average annual sodium concentration will be about 25 mg/l, well above the 20mg/l benchmark. Sodium concentration at the intake points of Philadelphia Water Department will reach this 20 mg/l benchmark sooner than at the Trenton gauging station. Upstream stations might reach this benchmark of 20mg/l a little later. Between now and 2070, there will be more periods in January and February in which sodium concentrations will be above 20 mg/l.

a. Brita Gove and Eric Pezzi Collecting Soil Samples next to Interstate Highway 95 to Examine the Salt Retention in 2012.

Maria Huffine, Leeann Sinpatanasakul (with Dr. Sun) Presenting Their Salt Project at America Water Work Association Annual Conference in2009. The presentation won the frist place undergraduate award.

Daniel Carlson, Matthew Nelson, and Kelly Luckarino Collecting Post Salting Water Samples from the Runoff Cup near a Parking Lot at Rider University.

Daniel Carlson Doing a Titration of Chloride with Silver Nitrate at Rider University Science and Technology Center.

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Soil Sampling Crews: Top, Kelly Matt; Bottom: Nick, Alex studying the soil properties and salt retention in soils.

Top:Sodium chloride concentrations can be hundreds times higher in post salting runoff water than in that of pre-salting runoff water. Bottom: Sulfate and nitrate concentration also shows a increasing trend towards the highway in runoff water.

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Water sampling and insitu pH, temperature and conductivity measurement at Little Shabakunk Creek watershed, NJ (Front: Rachel,Muhammad and Suvarna. Back from left: Brian, Alex, Geoffrey, Paul, Norbert, Jessica, Craig, and Haley)

Soil field survey and sampling crews at Drexel Woods (2015 soil class).

 

 

WHAT IS THE HARM OF TOO MUCH SODIUM?

According to American Heart Association Web site
Quote: Excess levels of sodium/salt may put you at risk for:

 

Your Health

Your Appearance
Excess levels of sodium may cause:

Increased Water Retention, Leading To

End Quote. See AHA web site for more information

 

WHO IS PUTTING SALTS INTO THE DELAWARE RIVER WATERSHED?

1). Deicing Salt Application

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: File photo of road salt. (Credit: Scott Olson/Getty Images)CBS Photo (Credit: Scott Olson/Getty Images).

The largest salt source is the winter deicing salt. The contribution of its proportion increases annually. Currently, deicing salt contributes to about 2/3 of the total sodium input in the Delaware River. Technical details about this estimation can be found in two of my research articles published in Journal of Contaminant Hydrology and Applied Geochemistry (Sun et al., 2012,and Sun et al., 2014)

Proportional change of Na+K in the Delaware River at Trenton since 1944 (Source: Sun et al., 2014)

Proportion change of Cl in the Delaware River at Trenton since 1944(Source: Sun et al., 2014)

 

Before the large application of road deicing salt (1940-1950th), sodium in the Delaware River came mainly from the weathering of albite and other minerals. Na/Cl molar ratios in the Delaware River were between 1 and 3. With increased supply of the sodium chloride from deicing salt at a Na/Cl molar ratio of 1:1, and overall high sodium retention than chloride due to high affinity of sodium to the negatively charged particles in nature, Na/Cl molar ratios started to decline. Based upon the Na/Cl molar ratios in the Delaware River and Na/Cl molar ratio model we established from salt injection experiments in the lab, we can estimate the source partition of sodium chloride in the Delaware River.

Decline of Na/Cl molar ratios due to the increased supply of deicing salt

Seasonal Change of Na/Cl molar ratios since 1944

 

2). Weathering Supply from Nature

Our estimation is that currently sodium supply from natural weathering in the Delaware River is less than 15% of the sodium. Because surficial geology of the Delaware River Watershed is mainly sedimentary rock, little natural salts remain. The main sources of natural sodium are albite, a kind of feldspar, and various clay particles and organic matters that have sodium absorbed onto.

3). Agriculture Fertilizer

Contribution of salt from the agriculture sources might be significant before the road salt becomes dominant. However, it is unlikely that the agriculture fertilizer is a reason for the sodium and chloride increase in the Delaware River Watershed (DRW). Between 1950 and 2004, the farmland in the Delaware River Watershed was reduced by 47.6%, while the national farmland was reduced only by 22.1% during the same period.

Reduction of the farmland in DRW was almost twice as faster as the national average (Source: Sun et al., 2006)

 

4). Precipitation

Precipitation accounts for less than 4% of sodium chloride in the Delaware River (see the underneath Table). Its contribution has not changed significantly based upon the available data between 1983 and 2013.

No significant trend for sodium and chloride concentrations in the precipiation at two stations in the DRW. Data Source (National Atmonspheric Deposition Program)

Locations of three precipitation stations in the DRW. Top, Milford, PA; bottom two, Washington Crossing and Princeton, NJ

 

5). Discharge from Water Treatment Plants

Sodium level in recycled water can be twice the sodium level in potable water. The salt here mainly comes from the salt in the food, water softener, disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite), etc. Salt proportion in this category increased over the years mainly due to the population increase. There were about 5.08 million people in Delaware River Watershed back in 1950. By 2010, there were about 8.7 million people. This can account for 3-4 % of the total sodium in the Delaware River Watershed.

 

IMPACT OF INCREASED DEICING SALT ON OVERALL WATER QUALITY IN THE DELAWARE RIVER

1). Water Is Getting Salty

Between 1945 and 2018, sodium concentration in the Delaware River at Trenton increased 4 times and chloride concentration increased 6.3 times. The increasing trends of sodium and chloride concentrations will likely continue in the foreseeable future due to sodium and chloride retention in the soil (Sun et al., 2012).The projection is that by year 2070, the average annual sodium concentration in the Delaware River at Trenton will reach the 20 mg/l EPA and AHA recommended limit. Sodium concentration at the intake points of Philadelphia Water Department will reach this 20 mg/l benchmark sooner than at the Trenton gauging station.

2). Water Is Getting Harder

The underneath table shows the normalized 10-year average annual concentrations and regression trends of major ions, pH, and charge ratios in precipitation at Milford station, PA and Washing Crossing station, NJ, and in the Delaware River at Trenton, NJ station (Sun et al., 2014). Statistically significant upward trends can be identified for both calcium and chloride concentrations between 1944 and 2013 in the Delaware River. Trends for concentrations of other elements can be identified as well. Not all the trends are due to the cation exchange of sodium with other cations or the anion exchange/complexation of chloride with other ions.

Units: Kg/hectare/year.

 

SiO2

Ca2+

Mg2+

Na+

K+

HCO3-

SO42-

Cl-

NO3-

pH

Z+/Z-

Milford, PA (precipitation)

 

1981-1990

---

0.88

0.27

1.12

0.26

---

24.54

2.33

17.74

4.29

0.92

1991-2000

 

0.84

0.22

1.27

0.20

---

21.89

2.43

18.04

4.35

0.95

2001-2010

---

0.94

0.23

1.24

0.31

---

16.37

2.42

13.95

4.54

1.00

Washington Crossing, NJ (precipitation)

1981-1990

---

1.25

0.47

2.09

0.29

---

25.43

4.12

15.79

4.33

0.93

1991-2000

---

0.83

0.37

2.26

0.24

---

21.25

4.28

15.60

4.38

0.95

2001-2010

---

1.01

0.34

2.13

0.24

---

18.59

4.12

13.50

4.50

0.99

Delaware River at Trenton (n=695, basin area, 17560 square kilometers, downstream)

1944-1950

10.91

90.16

30.39

31.46

8.60

245.68

149.28

31.68

8.06

7.03

1.01

1951-1960

12.60

91.61

31.10

32.68

9.54

255.18

151.05

36.16

7.98

7.10

0.99

1961-1970

7.33

63.82

22.08

25.73

6.26

166.78

107.32

35.79

7.64

7.12

1.00

1971-1980

9.40

107.85

36.55

46.27

11.78

304.15

156.62

67.06

15.25

7.92

1.02

1981-1990

8.23

94.26

32.89

50.83

7.91

125.56

75.11

9.45

8.00

1991-2000

8.71

89.38

29.87

56.82

7.96

279.67

99.83

88.10

9.08

7.88

1.02

2001-2011

11.10

115.07

38.11

84.84

9.91

366.67

108.09

143.10

10.46

7.86

1.02

Regression Trends of Ion Concentrations in the Delaware River at Trenton between 1944 and 2012. For SO42-, between 1980-2012

Regression t-test

-7.29

4.09

3.73

25.61

-2.92

6.04

-12.55

34.30

4.57

18.34

---

Data number used

690

694

694

693

466

536

231

694

565

693

---

Average Annual Ion Precipitation as Percentage of Delaware River Ion Discharge at Trenton

1981-1990

1.1%

1.1%

3.2%

3.5%

---

19.9%

4.3%

177.3%

53.9%

---

1990-2000

0.9%

1.0%

3.1%

2.8%

---

21.6%

3.8%

185.1%

55.5%

---

2001-2010

0.8%

0.7%

2.0%

2.8%

---

16.2%

2.3%

131.2%

57.6%

---

*Precipitation data are from NADP and stream data are from the US Geological Survey. Z+/Z- is the positive to negative charge ratio and n is the sample size. Regression t-test is for the regression slope of concentration vs. sample date. Any t value >1.97 or <-1.97 indicates a significant trend with 95% confidence. A positive t value indicates an increasing trend while a negative t value indicates a decreasing trend. The higher the t value is, the stronger the trend is.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3). More Heavy Metals Are Released

Complexation of chloride with lead and mercury can lead to their increased release into the soil solution and river water. Dispersion from hydrated sodium can also lead to the increased concentration of arsenic in soil solution.

When Cl concentration increases, Hg release increases as well. Data are from a coastal aquifer in Italy published by Grassi and Netti (2000). (Sun et al., 2015)

Positive concentration correlation between Na, Hg, Cl, and Pb from the Centennial Lake Watershed in the DRW (Sun et al., 2015).

 

 

 

WHAT CAN WE DO?

Alternative Salt: Calcium Chloride for Deicing?

Since calcium is a macronutrient element in soil and water and maybe beneficial to organisms in moderate amount, it can be taken up by organisms in soil easily. Calcium salt also might help neutralize acidity in soil and water from acid rain to some degree (unless plants prefer acidic soil). Therefore, calcium chloride (CaCl2) can be used as an alternative salt in place of sodium chloride for deicing. However, because calcium has a higher cation exchange capacity than sodium, initially it will accelerate the release of sodium that was stored in soil from the application of sodium chloride salt in the past few decades. We will not expect a decrease in the concentration of sodium in the Delaware River for many years to come, even if we switched all the deicing salt to the calcium chloride. In addition, strong cation exchange capacity of the calcium might accelerate the release of other unwanted metals from soils locally when there is an elevated source of a particular metal. Also too much calcium and magnesium might increase the hardness of water. Fortunately, most heavy metals have a relatively short travel distance in surface water due to their strong adsorption by soil colloids. Also, river water in the Delaware River has a moderate hardness which is difficult to change due to the active nature of calcium with soil and organisms. More studies are needed on this.

Deicing Salt Choice: Sodium Chloride or Calcium Choride?

Sodium Chloride (also called halite, NaCl)

Cost: $7-to $10 per 50lbs.

Melt down to 5oF

Less eco-friendly

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2),

Cost: $20 to $25 per 50lbs

Melt down to -25oF

More eco-friendly

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EPA recommended sodium level in drinking water: 20 mg/l.

EPA recommended calcium level in drinking water __none(?)

Our vote goes to calcium chloride for now.

 

Recent Activities

1. Water quality and salt concentration study of Shabakunk Creek Watershed in NJ

Underneath pictures show students of different classes from Rider University involved in field water sampling, laboratory analyses of nitrate, phosphate, ICP analyses of salt (Na, and Cl) and soil survey and quality study (picture showing the PVC pipe) survey.

Sebastian Oberndorfer and students from GEO-102L are collecting water samples in the Centnnial Lake watershed from a small bridge

Measuring, pH, temperature,nitrate, and phosphate concentrations of collected water samples with a pH meter and colorimeter. Front two rows are Sebastian Oberndorfer, Kelly Weeks and Julie Koval.

Brian Corino, Nicole Tyburczy, and Samantha Watkins are measuring metal and halogen elemental concentrations of collected water samples using ICP at Science and Technology Center of Rider University.

Kelly Catino, Imani Guest, and Andrea Cavalluzzi are measuring metal and halogen elemental concentrations of collected water samples using ICP at Science and Technology Center of Rider University.

Samantha Watkins, Brian Corin, Michael Sammartino, and Nicole Tyburczy are measuring stream discharge with a flow meter.

Gathering water from Shabakunk Creek for soil percolation study (Ambria and George)

Taking notes in a soil field survey trip (Rebecca, Steve, Rachel, Haley, and Alex).

Collecting water samples from a suction lysimeters to study soil solution and analyze the sources of water chemistry in the Shabakunk Creek (Dave, Kathy, Gregory and Dr. Sun).

Digging holes with a hand auger for soil percolation-groundwater flow study near Shabakunk Creek (Ambria, Steve, Ian, George, Dr. Sun and Gregory).

Rider senior (Elaine) is conducting a in-situ pH and conductivty measurement of water in the Shabakunk Creek.

Aiming at the measuring rod from a soil survey level (Muhammad, Geoffrey, Alex(back), Rebecca, Norbert, Paul and Brian).

Collecting soil samples in Drexel Woods, Lawrenceville, NJ (Brian, Rebecca, Paul, Norbert,Suvarna)

Aiming at the measuring rod from a soil survey level (Geoffrey, Paul and Norbert).

Creative use of a flat panel for taking field notes (Craig and Haley)

Norbert is really having fun with the survey level.

Sections of soil monolith colelcted from Mercer field, New Jersey (Norbert, Sam and Steve)

Soil percolation study at the edge of Shabakunk Creek, New Jersey

Group A of soil survey crews in Mercer Field Park: Geoffrey, Alex, Kelly, Dianna, Rachel, Katharine, Norbert, Caitlyn H., Dave, Suvarna, Muhammad, Caitlyn, Elaine

Percolation test crews (front): Kathy B., Ambria, Steve, Gregory

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2. Water samples from tributaries of the Delaware River by volunteers of the Delaware RiverKeeper Network, Musconetcong Watershed Association, and Stroud Water Research Center are being collected and analyzed at Rider University Science and Technology Center.

Low left picture shows the planned and existing water sample locations sampled in collaboration with Delaware RiverKeeper Network for salt analyses. Locations are mainly in northern branches of Delaware River. Contact person: Faith Zerbe

Low right picture shows the currently sampling locations in collaboratory with Musconetcong Watershed Association, NJ

Contact Person: Nancy Lawler

Average Na Concentration (mg/l) of 2016 spring data

Average sulfate concentration(mg/l) of 2016 spring data

 

Student presentation of salt data from large DRB in 2018 Fall.

Student presentation of salt data from large DRB in 2016 spring.

 

Taylor Grieshaber was taking water samples from a creek at Rider in fall, 2018.

 

3. Studies of salt intake and public health issues (Updated 2/9/2019)

1). Increased salt intake and hypertension

Disclaim: this is only the opinion of the author. They do not represent the opinion of any organizations. If you have questions regarding the salt and your health, please consult with your physician.

(Most lines are directly cited from Sun and Sun, 2018, Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. Vol 12, No. 5, p. 392-401)

The broad consensus is that increased sodium intake is positively associated with blood pressure. Increasing dietary sodium intake is generally believed to result in expansion of blood volume and increase in blood pressure. This is particular an issue for seniors-roughly ages 60 and above for men and 70 and above for women because our systolic blood pressure increases with age (See underneath figure). Diastolic blood pressure increases with age before 50 and decreases afterwards for both men and women. These trends reflect the progressive stiffness of large elastic arteries in cardiothoracic circulation and slow narrowing of blood vessels with age. Progressively decreasing glomerular filtration rate, reducing renal flow rate and increasing blood osmolality with age also contribute to increased blood pressure in advanced ages. Therefore, the seniors and people with hypertension are probably the most salt sensitive groups that will be affected the most when salt level in water rises. Drinking water in the tri-state region (NY, NJ and PA) is mainly from the Delaware River.

Iso-systolic blood pressure (mm of Hg) maps of blood (serum) sodium and potassium for men (left panels) and women (right panels), ages between 70 and 85. Note that increased serum sodium generally increase the blood pressure (Sun and Sun., 2018, Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol12, No5, p.392-401. Figure 3a-b). Though salt intake is not the same as serum sodium, at certain sodium intake level, increase of sodium intake will increase the serum sodium. This will be more apparent for people in advanced ages (for more specific, see my original journal article).

Age averaged trends of systolic (low left,)and diastolic blood pressures (low right panel) of 20403 men and 23826 women between ages 12 and 85 in the US population- systolic blood pressure increases with age (Sun and Sun, 2018, Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, vol12, No5, p.392-401. Figure 3a-b).

 

2). Increased salt intake and possible links to multiple sclerosis progression (under study)

Multiple previous studies have linked high sodium intake to progression of multiple sclerosis. High-sodium chloride concentrations have been reported to induce the production of Th17 cells by upregulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, TNFα, IL-2, IL-9, several chemokines and CCR6 which are essential for the autoimmune function of Th17 cells. Overreact of autoimmune Th17 cells can cause rapid increase of autoimmune diseases. Studies also suggested that high sodium influx through the voltage gated sodium channel can induce cell damage. Sustained sodium influx can trigger calcium ion influx, which produces axonal injury in neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis. (Opinions of the following articles: Binger KJ, Linker RA, Muller DN, Kleinewietfeld M. Sodium chloride, SGK1, and Th17 activation. Pflugers Archiv- Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;467:543-50; Zostawa J, Adamczyk J, Sowa P, Adamczyk-Sowa M. The influence of sodium on pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2017;38:389-98).

Though there is a population study argued against the above idea, the author here suspects an error existing in that study for their dietary estimation of the population sodium intake. Sodium intake can be significantly different if a person/s dietary items are from different locations even if they are the same items. For example, a potato from one state can have significantly different amount of sodium than a potato from another state. Sodium levels in crops reflect the sodium levels in soil (see the underneath figure from Sun, 2018 Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40:1513-1524). One needs to track the sources of dietary item in a population study for an accurate estimation of sodium intake which is difficult to achieve. Sodium limitation in soil does not affect plant growth as much as macronutrients. More studies are needed on this.

 

The above figure is the soil sodium distribution measured in the US from 4856 sites across all 48 states between 2007 and 2010 by USGS. Soil sodium concentrations are directly linked to the sodium level in crops and they change from location to location (The figure is from Sun, 2018. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 40:1513-1524).

News Link

Where does the road salt go? Channel 6-abc news 2/6/2019.

Where will all that road salt go? Into the Delaware River - and that's a concern? Philadelphia Inquirer story: Salt good for roads, bad for environment (1/11, 2018).

CNBC story: Road salt: The winter' s $2.3 billion game changer (2015).

PennDot used 831,000 tons of salt on average for the last five winters before 2013. b. It used 1.12 million tons in 2013-2014 winter (by 3/2014).

SALT PROJECT RELATED PUBLICATIONS

1. Sun, H., Grieshaber, T., Sulaman F., Margel L., Panuccio, E. and Lawler N., 2018. Salty Water Trend and Sources of Salt in the Delaware River. In Water supply, hydrology and hydrodynamics in New Jersey and the Delaware River Basin. 2018 Conference Proceedings for the 35thAnnual Meeting of the Geological Association of New Jersey.

 

2. Sun, H. and M Sun. 2018. Age and gender dependent associations of blood pressure and serum sodium and potassium,Renal and extrarenal regulations. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. Vol 12, No. 5, p. 392-401. High serum sodium may be related to increasing blood pressure in seniors. For an exact word file, you can download by clicking here.

 

3. Sun, H. 2018. Association of soil potassium and sodium concentrations with spatial disparities of prevalence and mortality rates of hypertensive diseases in the USAEnvironmental Geochemistry and Health 40:15131524. Increased sodium in drinking water is a complicated issue. It may not be a problem for young people. But for people of advanced ages, increased salt might be an issue related to increased hypertension.

4. Sun, H., Alexander, J., Gove, B., Koch, 2015. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. In Review.

5. Sun, H., Alexander, J. Gove, B., Pezzi, E., Chakowski, N., Husch, J., 2014. Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds.

Applied Geochemistry. 48(214) p.141-154.

6. Sun, H., L. Sinpatanasakul,. J.M. Husch, M. Huffine, 2012. Na/Cl molar ratio changes during a salting cycle and its application to the estimation of sodium retention in salted watersheds. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology.136-137, p. 96-105

7. Sun, H., Lucarino, K., Huffine, M., Husch J.M., 2010. Retention of Sodium in a Watershed due to the Application of Winter Deicing Salt. Proceeding paper of the joint session of the 10th International Symposium on Stochastic Hydraulics and 5th International Conference on Water Resources and Environment Research in Canada.

8. Sun, H. , Nelson,. M., Chen, F. and Husch, J. 2009. Soil Mineral Structural Water Loss during Loi Analyses. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. Vol. 89,No.5, p.603-610.

9. Sun, H, Natter, C. and Lacombe, P., 2008. Erosion and Weathering Processes in the Delaware River Basin. Proceedings of GANJ XXV Environmental and Engineering Geology of Northeastern New Jersey, edited by M. L. Gorring, p.27-38.

10. Sun, H., Hewins, D., Latini, D., and Husch, J. 2006. Changes in Impervious Surface Area, Flood Frequency, and Water Chemistry within the Delaware River Basin during the Past 50 Years: Initial Results. Proceedings of the 7th Int. Conf. on Hydroscience and Engineering (ICHE-2006), Sep 10 -Sep 13,Philadelphia,USA ISBN: 0977447405.15pp.

 

Conference Presentations on Deicing Salt and Its Environmental Impact

1.  Grieshaber, T., Sulaman F., Margel L., Panuccio, E. Lawler, N and Sun, H., 2018. Salty Water Trend and Sources of Salt in the Delaware River. In Water supply, hydrology and hydrodynamics in New Jersey and the Delaware River Basin. Poster presentation at 35th Annual Meeting of the Geological Association of New Jersey. Camden, New Jersey. 10/19/2018.

2. Hongbing Sun, Nicole Donato*, Maria Chaves, Muhammad Sarwar. 2017. Variations of Lead Concentrations in Soil Profiles near an Interstate Highway in New Jersey. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 49, No. 2. doi: 10.1130/abs/2017NE-290389

 3.  Sun, H., Sulaman, F., Dell'oro, A., 2016. Changes of mercury concentration in response to chloride complexation under deicing salt condition. GSA Abstracts with Programs. 48, 2.

4. Sarwar, Muhammad, Panuccio, Elaine, Schwartz, Stephen, and Sun, Hongbing. 2015. Lead Concentrations in Soil Profiles of a Transect near an Interstate Highway in New Jersey. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 3, p.71

5. Sun, Hongbing, Barton, Amber, Sarwar, Muhammad, And Panuccio, Elaine. 2015. Role of Phosphate in the Mobilization of Arsenic from Soil and Aquifer. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 3, p.72

6. Sun, H. Barton, A., Sarwar, M., Gallagher,W.,Schwimmer, R.,2014. Geochemical Environment of Arsenic in Stream Water and Soil Solution. Geological Society of America Northeastern Section Annual Conference. Abstracts with Programs Vol. 46, No. 2.

7.     Sun,H., Alexander, J., Gove.,B., 2014. Mobilization of Heavy Metals in Response to Deicing Salt Application. Geological Society of America Northeastern Section Annual Conference. Abstracts with Programs Vol. 46, No. 2.

8.     Sun, H., Alexander, J., Gove, B., Pezzi, E.,Chakowski, N., and Husch, J., 2013. Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds. American Geophysical Union Annual Conference, 2013 Online Abstract.

9. Alexander, J., Pezzi, E., Gove, B., Sinpatanasakul, L., and Feher, C., Sun, H.,2013. Release of heavy metals from soil due to application of winter deicing salt in a watershed. America Water Work Association-NJ Annual Conference.3/20/2013. Honorable mention for best undergraduate project presentation.

10. Sun, H., Chakowski, N., Mazza, N.,Gove,B., Pezzi, E., And Husch, J. 2012. The Possibility of Road Salt-Induced Release of Heavy Metals from Soil in a Watershed. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 44, No. 7, p.393.

11.     Alexander, J., Pezzi, E.,Gove, B., Sinpatanasakul, L., and Feher, C., Sun, H.,2013. Release of heavy metals from soil due to application of winter deicing salt in a watershed. America Water Work Association-NJ Annual Conference.3/20/2013.

12.  Sun, H. Huffine, M., Sinpatanasakul, L. and Husch, J., 2011, Using Na/Cl molar ratio for estimating sodium retention in artificially salted watersheds. GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 43, No.5.

12.  Sinpatanasakul, L., Sun, H., and Husch, J., 2011 Effect of CaCl2 and NaCl Mixture as Winter Deicing Salt on the Sodium Retention, GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 43, No.5.

13.  Sun, H., Lucarino, K., Huffine, M., Husch, 2010: Watershed Retention of Sodium due to the Application of Road Deicing Salt. Abstract submitted to the 5th International Conference on Water Resources and Environment Research, in Canada.

14. Maria A. Huffine*, Leeann K*. Sinpatanasakul, Ashleigh Layton, Kelly Luckarino and Hongbing Sun,2009. Retention of Sodium in the Centennial Lake Watershed. New Jersey Water Environmental Association 94th Annual Conference at Atlantic City. 4/30/2009. Received 1st place undergraduate project and presentation award.

15. Sun, H, Natter, C. and Lacombe, P., 2008. Erosion and Weathering Processes in the Delaware River Basin. Proceedings of GANJ XXV Environmental and Engineering Geology of Northeastern New Jersey, edited by M. L. Gorring, p.2.

16. Lucarino, K, Natter, C., Carlson, D., Hua, J. and Sun, H.,2008. Road Salt Application and Its Impact on Water Quality of the Delaware River. New Jersey Water Environmental Association 93rd Annual Conference at Atlantic City. Second place best student poster award.

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Updated 2/9/2019.

Hongbing Sun, email: hsun@rider.edu, phone 609-896-5185.